Sha-512 is a function of cryptographic algorithm Sha-2, which is an evolution of famous Sha-1.Sha-512 is very close to its "brother" Sha-256 except that it used 1024 bits "blocks", and accept as input a 2^128 bits maximum length string. Sha-512 also has others algorithmic modifications in comparison with Sha-256.
SHA is a hash function and AES is an encryption standard. Given an input you can use SHA to produce an output which is very unlikely to be produced from any other input. Also, some information is lost while applying the function so even if you knew how to produce an input yielding the same output, that input wouldn't likely be the same one used What is RSA encryption and how does it work? | Comparitech Dec 10, 2018 Sha1 Decrypt & Encrypt - More than 15.000.000.000 hashes
SHA256 is not an encryption function but a hash function. The fundamental difference is that while encryption is a two way function (given the key) hash is only a one way function: given some data you can compute the hash, given the hash it is difficult (and mathematically impossible) to have the data back.
Always Encrypted cryptography - SQL Server | Microsoft Docs
What is the Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1)? - Definition
MySQL :: MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual :: 12.13 Encryption